4000 BC 1000 BC 1 1000 1500 1700 1800 1850 1900 1925 1950

1500

The siege of Kasan, (late 1499 or early 1500) saw Sultan Mahmud Khan of Tashkent intervene in the civil war between Babur and his brother's supporter Sultan Ahmad Tambal.
 

5-21 March

The siege of Novara (5-21 March 1500) was Ludovico Sforza's last success in his attempt to expel the French from the Duchy of Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).
 

8 April

The battle of Novara (8 April 1500) was an easy French victory that ended an attempt by Ludovico Sforza to expel them from the Duchy of Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).
 

11 November

The Treaty of Granada (11 November 1500) was an agreement between Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon to split the Kingdom of Naples between them.

1501

  The battle of Sar-i-Pul (April-May 1501) was an early defeat suffered by Babur after he had captured the city of Samarkand for a second time
    The siege of Samarkand during the summer of 1501 saw the city fall to the Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaibani Khan after being defended during the summer of 1501 by Babur.
 

July

The siege of Capua (July 1501) was part of the French invasion of Naples in the summer of 1501 (Second Italian War)
 

Autumn

The siege of Taranto (Autumn 1501-March 1502) was the last stand of the Aragonese dynasty of Naples after it was attacked by a Franco-Spanish alliance (Second Italian War).
     

1502

March

Taranto surrenders to the Spanish.
 

August

The siege of Barletta (August 1502-April 1503) saw a French army under the Duke of Nemours loosely blockade a smaller Spanish army under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba in the port of Barletta in Apulia, but the French failed to press their advantage before Cordoba was reinforced

1503

April

End of siege of Barletta (August 1502-April 1503)
 

26 April

The battle of Cerignola (26 April 1503) was the first great victory for Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (El Gran Capitán) and forced the French to abandon the city of Naples.
 

June-October

The siege of Gaeta (June-October 1503) was an unsuccessful Spanish attempt to capture one of the last French strongholds in Naples in the aftermath of the great Spanish victory at Cerignola in April 1503
 

28-29 December

The battle of the Garigliano (28-29 December 1503) was the second of two major Spanish victories won in Naples during 1503 that saw the French expelled from the south of Italy.

1504

October

The Treaty of Blois (September 1504) ended fighting between Louis XII of France and the Emperor Maximilian, and was followed by a series of other treaties that between them ended the Second Italian War (1499-1503).
    Babur's conquest of Kabul in October 1504 gave him a safe base to rebuild his fortunes after the Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaibani Khan expelled him from Samarkand and Babur's own family squabbles pushed him out of his own kingdom of Ferghana.

1505

  The siege of Qalat or Khilat (1505) was a short-lived success for Babur early in his time as ruler of Kabul
 

October

The Treaty of Blois of October 1505 was the second of two treaties of Blois that restored peace after the Second Italian War of 1499-1503.

1507

Early

The siege of Kabul of early 1507 saw Babur forced to return to his new capital city to overcome a revolt against him and relieve a siege of the Citadel.
    The battle of Khamchan of 1507 saw Babur's younger brother Nasir Mirza expelled from Badakhshan after a short reign of only two years
    The battle of Kandahar (1507) was a victory won by Babur against forces that he had being expecting to serve as his allies against the Uzbek conqueror Muhammad Shaibani Khan
    The siege of Kandahar of 1507 saw the Uzbek conqueror Shaibani Khan make an unsuccessful attack on the city with days of its capture by Babur

1508

  The battle of Kabul of 1508 saw Babur put down a revolt amongst his Mongol troops despite being outnumbered by around six-to-one
 

10 December

Formation of the League of Cambrai, an anti-Venetian alliance. The War of the League of Cambrai begins in the following year.

1509

14 May

The battle of Agnadello (14 May 1509) was the only major battle of the War of the League of Cambrai, and was a Venetian defeat that caused the Republic to temporarily abandon many of its mainland possessions.

1510

February

Pope Julius II agrees a treaty with Venice, ending the League of Cambrai and marking the start of the War of the Holy League

1511

  The battle of Pul-i-Sanghin or Abdara (1511) was the first victory won by Babur early in the campaign that led to his third and final occupation of Samarkand

1512

11 April

The battle of Ravenna (11 April 1512) was a French victory over a Spanish army that might have helped secure a French victory over the forces of the Holy League if the young French commander, Gaston de Foix, duke of Nemours, hadn't been killed late in the day.
 

May

The battle of Kul-i-Malik (May 1512) was a defeat for Babur that forced him to abandon Samarkand, ending his third and final period in command of that city.
 

12 November

The battle of Ghaj-davan (12 November 1512) was an Uzbek victory over a largely Persian army that ended any chance that Babur had of retaking his ancestral home of Samarkand

1513

3-6 June

The siege of Novara (3-6 June 1513) was the highpoint of the French invasion of Milan of 1513, and was ended by the arrival of strong Swiss reinforcements who defeated the French in battle outside Novara (6 June 1513).
 

6 June

The battle of Novara (6 June 1513) was one of the last victories won by the famous Swiss infantry, and saw them overwhelm a French army that had temporarily occupied most of the Duchy of Milan.
 

9 September

Battle of Flodden

1514

July

Henru VIII makes peace with France, marking the end of the War of the Holy League

1515

  The battle of Ghazni (1515) saw Babur defeat a rebellion that broke out in the aftermath of the death of his brother Nasir Mirza, who had been the ruler of that city.
 

13-14 September

The battle of Marignano or Melegnano (13-14 September 1515) was a French victory that restored their rule of the Duchy of Milan after a brief period of Swiss dominance, and that was probably the high point of Francis I's career in Italy (Francis I's First Invasion of Italy).

1516

13 August

The Treaty of Noyon (13 August 1516) ended the fighting between Spain and France after Francis I's first invasion of Italy.

1518

  The siege of Chaghansarai of 1518 was an early step in Babur's attempts to conquer an empire in Hindustan

1519

January

The siege of Bajaur of January 1519 was an early success during Babur's preparations for the invasion of Hindustan, and was notable for an early use of gunpowder weapons
 

15 March

The battle of Pharwala (15 March 1519) saw Babur capture a strong fortress held by the Gakhar tribe

1520

  The siege of Sayyidpur of 1520 was the only major military action to take place in Babur's third expedition into India
    The siege of Kandahar of 1520-6 September 1522 was a major victory for Babur that removed the last major obstacle in Afghanistan to his planned invasion of Hindustan

1522

27 April 1522

The battle of La Bicocca (27 April 1522) was the first in a series of French battlefield defeats in Italy during the First Hapsburg-Valois War and saw an army sent to recapture Milan defeated just outside the city.
 

6 September

End of the siege of Kandahar (from 1520)

1524

Early January

The battle of Lahore (early January 1524) was the first military success during Babur's fourth expedition into India, but the necessity to fight at all at Lahore meant that Babur's plan of campaign was already in trouble
 

Mid January

The siege of Dibalpur (modern Dipalpur) of January 1524 was the second and final military success during Babur's fourth expedition into India, coming after his victory at Lahore earlier in the month

 

  The battle of Sialkot of 1524 was a victory for Babur's lieutenants in the Punjab over a former ally, fought between his fourth and fifth expeditions into India.
 

27 October

The siege of Pavia (27 October 1524-24 February 1525) saw the defenders of the city hold long enough for Imperial reinforcements to read Italy before inflicting a crushing defeat on Francis I at the Battle of Pavia (24 February 1525).

1525

  The siege of Balkh of 1525 saw the Uzbeks capture Balkh despite Babur's efforts to defend it
    The battle of Delhi of 1525 was a victory won by Sultan Ibrahim Lodi over a rebel army led by his uncle Alam Khan
 

24 February

The battle of Pavia (24 February 1525) was the decisive battle of the First Hapsburg-Valois War, and was a French defeat that saw Francis I captured and that permanently undermined the French position in Italy.

1525

26 February 1526

The battle of Hisar-Firuza (26 February 1526) was the first clash between Babur and the forces of the Sultanate of Delhi during the campaign that ended at Panipat two months later
 

2 April 1526

The battle in the Doab of 2 April 1526 was a minor victory at an unnamed location that saw Babur defeat a detachment from Ibrahim Lodi's army that had been sent across the River Jumna into the Doab
 

21 April 1526

The first battle of Panipat (21 April 1526) was a major victory for Babur over Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi, won during his fifth and final expedition into Hindustan, and that helped establish the Mogul Empire.

1526

  The Second Hapsburg-Valois War or War of the League of Cognac (1526-30) was an unsuccessful attempt to reduce the power of Charles V in Italy after his crushing victory at Pavia in 1525, and is perhaps best known for a disastrous sack of Rome in 1527.
 

Summer

The siege of Sambal (or Sambhal) in the summer of 1526 took place during the disturbed period that followed Babur's victory at Panipat, and involved some of his nobles attempting to help one potentially hostile Afghan defeat another one.
    The siege of Khandhar (1526) was a success for the Rajput Rana Sangha of Mewar in the period after Babur's victory at Panipat had overthrown the Lodi dynasty, but before Babur had secured his own authority
    The battle of Bayana (1526) was a rare setback for Babur in the aftermath of his victory at Panipat on 21 April 1526

 

late 1526-February 1527

The siege of Bayana (late 1526-February 1527) was one of a series of incidents that discouraged Babur's army in the build-up to the decisive battle against Rana Sangha of Mewar at Khanua in March 1527, but that ended without the fort falling

1527

Late February

The combat of Khanua of late February 1527 was one of a series of setbacks that discouraged Babur's army in the period before his great victory over the Rajputs at Khanua in the following month
 

16 March

The battle of Khanua (16 March 1527) was the second of Babur's three great victories in northern India that helped to establish the Mogul Empire

1528

22-29 January

The siege of Chanderi (22-29 January 1528) was to have been the first stage in a campaign that Babur hoped would take him to Chitor, the capital of the defeated Rana Sangha, but a rebellion forced him to abandon this plan after the fall of the place.

1529

4-6 May

The battle of the Gogra River (4-6 May 1529) was the final major battle in the career of Babur, and saw him defeat Sultan Nasrat Ali of Bengal in a battle that was really only incidental to the main purpose of Babur's campaign in the east

1530

  End of the Second Hapsburg-Valois War or War of the League of Cognac (1526-30)

1536

  The Third Hapsburg-Valois War (1536-38) was an inconclusive clash triggered by the death of the last Sforza duke of Milan, and that ended as a minor French victory.

1538

  End of the Third Hapsburg-Valois War (1536-38)

1542

  The Fourth Hapsburg-Valois War (1542-44) was the last conflict between Francis I of France and the Empire Charles V, and was a drawn conflict that ended with the restoration of the pre-war status quo.

1544

  End of the Fourth Hapsburg-Valois War (1542-44)

1551

  The fifth and final Hapsburg-Valois War (1551-59) was the last in the series of clashes between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties that began under Francis I and Charles V.

1551

October

The siege of Metz (October 1552-January 1553) was a failed Imperial attempt to recapture Metz that was one of Charles V's last major military operations and that was said to have played a part in the decline of his health and his decision to abdicate (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).

1552

January

End of siege of Metz

1554

January

The siege of Siena (January 1554-April 1555) was one of the longer sieges of the Italian Wars, and was one of the last attempts by the pro-French party in Italy to counter Imperial and Spanish power in Italy.
 

2 August

The battle of Marciano (2 August 1554) saw the active field army of Siena suffer a heavy defeat, allowing their Florentine enemies to focus all of their efforts on the siege of Siena.
 

13 August

The battle of Renty (13 August 1554) was a minor French victory during an Imperial invasion of Picardy that was most notable as Charles V's last battle (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).

1555

April

End of siege of Siena

1557

2-27 August

The siege of St Quentin (2-27 August 1557) saw Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France, hold off a massive army led by Philip II of Spain for nearly a month, badly disrupting his plans for an invasion of France.
 

10 August

The battle of St Quentin (10 August 1557) saw the Spanish defeat a French army that was attempting to get reinforcements to the besieged garrison of St Quentin (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).

1558

  The Livonian War (1558-1583) was a twenty five year long struggle for control of Livonia (modern Estonia and Latvia)
 

13 July

Battle of Gravelines

1559

 

End of the fifth and final Hapsburg-Valois War (1551-59) ending the Italian Wars

1560

March

The Conspiracy of Amboise (March 1560) was an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Guise brothers, the dominant figures in France during the short reign of the young Francis II.

1562

January

The Edict of Saint-Germain or of January (issued in January 1562) was a Royal decree that gave the French Protestants the right to preach for the first time, ending a long period of persecution.
 

March/ April

Start of the First War of Religion (France) (to March 1563)
 

31 August

The siege of Bourges (to 31 August 1562) was an early Catholic successes during the First War of Religion, and saw them seize one of the most important Huguenot strongholds in central France.

 

20 September

The Treaty of Hampton Court (20 September 1562) saw Elizabeth I of England agree to provide support for the Huguenot cause in France during the First War of Religion, but the alliance produced very little practical aid for the Huguenots.
 

29 September

The siege of Rouen (29 September-26 October 1562) was a major Catholic success early in the First War of Religion, but was marred by the death of Antoine de Bourbon, king of Navarre, one of the most important Catholic leaders.
 

26 October

End of siege of Rouen
 

19 December

The battle of Dreux (19 December 1562) was the only major battle of the First War of Religion (1562-63) and was a hard-fought Royal victory notable because both commanders were captured during the fighting

1563

 

The Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) was one of a series of conflicts between Sweden and Denmark-Norway that followed the collapse of the Union of Kalmar

 

4 February-March

The siege of Orleans (4 February-March 1563) was the last major military action of the First War of Religion, and ended after the assassination of Duke François of Guise, the last major Catholic leader in the field.
 

18 March

The Edict of Amboise (18 March 1563) ended the First War of Religion (1562-63), and granted the Huguenots legal tolerance and a limited right to preach in strictly limited locations.
 

30 May

The Battle of Bornholm was the first fighting of the Nordic Seven Years War, coming before the official start of the war.

 

22 May-31 July

The siege of Le Havre (22 May-31 July 1563) saw the French expel an English garrison from the port in the aftermath of the First War of Religion.
 

To 4 September

The siege of Älvsborg was the first lfighting on land in the Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway.

 

11 September

The battle of Gotland was an inconclusive naval clash during the Nordic Seven Years War

 

9 November

The battle of Mared was one of only two significant land battles during the Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) between Sweden and Denmark

1564

Second Battle of Azukizaka (Japan), battle between the Samurai and the Ikko-Ikki monks.

 

11 April

The peace of Troyes (11 April 1564) officially ended the English involvement in the First War of Religion (1562-63).
 

30-31 May

The battle of Gotland-Öland was a chaotic two day battle during the Nordic Seven Years War that saw the destruction of the massive Swedish flagship Mars

 

12 July

The Action off Warnemünde, 12 July 1564, was a minor naval clash of the Nordic Seven Years War close to Rostock
 

12-13 August

The battle of Öländ was a minor Swedish naval victory over a combined Danish-Lübeck fleet during the Nordic Seven Years War

1567

September 1567

The Surprise of Meaux of September 1567 was an unsuccessful Huguenot attempt to seize control of the French court and remove a number of strongly anti-Protestant noblemen from the court. It triggered the Second War of Religion (to March 1568)
 

10 November 1567

The battle of Saint-Denis (10 November 1567) was the only major battle of the Second War of Religion (1567-68) and was a drawn conflict in which a much larger Royal army was unable to defeat the smaller Huguenot army that was blockading Paris from the north.

1568

24 February-March

The siege of Chartres (24 February-March 1568) was the last significant military action during the Second War of Religion, and saw a short-lived Huguenot attempt to take the city that was cut short by the peace negotiations that ended the war.
 

23 March

The Edict of Longjumeau (23 March 1568) ended the Second War of Religion (1567-68) and restored all the rights that the Huguenots had been granted in the Edict of Amboise at the end of the First War of Religion.
 

September

The Third War of Religion (1568-70) was significantly longer than the first two wars, and although it was marked by two major Catholic victories, at Jarnac and Moncontour, ended as a third Huguenot victory.
 

25 October

The battle of Mensignac (25 October 1568) was a minor Catholic victory early in the Third War of Religion notable for the death of the Huguenot leader Paul de Mouvans.

1569

13 March

The battle of Jarnac (13 March 1569) was a Catholic victory early in the Third War of Religion that was notable for the death of the Huguenot leader Condé, but that had little long term impact.
 

25 June

The battle of La Roche-Abeille (25 June 1569) was a minor Huguenot victory that came after their army had been joined by reinforcements from Germany.

 

27 July-7 September

The siege of Poitiers (27 July-7 September 1569) was an unsuccessful Huguenot attempt to capture the wealth city that cost them over 2,000 dead before the Royal army lifted the siege.
 

3 October

The battle of Moncontour (3 October 1569) was a major Catholic victory during the Third War of Religion that followed the unsuccessful Huguenot siege of Poitiers, and seemed to bring the Protestant cause to its knees
 

October-3 December

The siege of Saint-Jean d'Angély (October-3 December 1569) was a Catholic victory that nevertheless cost them so many troops that the Huguenots were able recover the initiative (Third War of Religion).

1570

Siege of Chokoji Castle (Japan)
 

22 January-20 February

The siege of Tolouse (22 January-20 February 1570) saw an unsuccessful Huguenot attempt to seize the city, abandoned because of a lack of supplies.
 

25 June

The battle of Arnay-le-Duc (25 June 1570) was a Huguenot victory that forced Charles IX of France to agree to a peace treaty that ended the Third War of Religion.
 

8 August

The Peace of St.-Germain (8 August 1570) ended the Third War of Religion, and gave the Huguenots substantially the same rights that they had held at the beginning of the war, as well as allocating them four 'security towns'.
 

December

The Peace of Stettin ended the Nordic Seven Years War between Sweden and Denmark (1563-1570), and also ended hostilities between Sweden and Poland-Lithuania (Livonian War)

1571

28 September

Siege of Mount Hiei (Japan). Part of the Samurai campaign against the Ikko-Ikki monks.

1572

24 August

The Fourth War of Religion (1572-73) was triggered by the St. Bartholomew's Eve Massacre of 24 August 1572, in which several thousand Huguenots were killed. The resulting war was dominated by a unsuccessful Catholic siege of La Rochelle, and was ended by a negotiated peace in the summer of 1573.
 

December

The siege of La Rochelle (December 1572-July 1573) was the main military action of the Fourth War of Religion, and was an unsuccessful Catholic attempt to capture the main Huguenot stronghold.

1573

3 January-19 August

The siege of Sancerre (3 January-19 August 1573) was one of the epic sieges of the French Wars of Religion, lasting for seven months and only ended after the defenders were included in the deal that ended the Fourth War of Religion.
 

11 February-9 April

The siege of Sommières (11 February-9 April 1573) was a minor Catholic success during the Fourth War of Religion, but one that took far too long to achieve and only ended when the defenders were given generous terms.
 

July

The edict of Pacification issued at Boulogne in July 1573 ended the Fourth War of Religion, and restricted the religious freedoms granted to the Huguenots at the end of the each of the first three wars of religion.

1574

June

The first siege of Livron (June 1574) was an unsuccessful Catholic attempt to capture the small Huguenot-held town that took place in the gap between the Fourth and Fifth Wars of Religion.
    The siege of Lusignan (September 1574-25 January 1575) was a costly Catholic victory that came in the gap between the Fourth and Fifth Wars of Religion.
    The siege of Le Pouzin (5-15 October 1574) was one of a number of sieges that took place in the south of France during the gap between the Fourth and Fifth Wars of Religion.
    The second siege of Livron (17 December 1574-24 January 1575) saw a second unsuccessful Catholic attempt to capture this Huguenot-held town.

1575

Summer

Outbreak of the Fifth War of Religion (France)
 

10 October

The battle of Dormans (10 October 1575) was the only significant battle during the Fifth War of Religion (1575-76) and saw a Royal army defeat part of a force of German troops that were coming to the aid of the Huguenots.
 

21 November

The Truce of Champigny-sur-Veude (21 November 1575) was the first attempt to end the Fifth War of Religion (1575-76) but the agreement was not ratified by most of the Huguenot leaders and the war dragged on into 1576.

1576

5 May

The Edict of Beaulieu (5 May 1576) ended the Fifth War of Religion and gave the Huguenots more religious rights than any of the treaties that had ended the first four wars.

1581

August

Start of the Siege of Pskow, to January 1582 (Livonian War)

1582

Death of Odo Nobunaga, assassinated by one of his own generals.

 

January

End of Siege of Pskov, abandoned when Ivan IV of Russia negotiates for peace

 

15 January

Peace of Iam Zapolskii, ends fighting in the Livonian War between the Russia of Ivan IV and Poland-Lithuania

1588

29 July

Battle of Gravelines (2)

1597

The Swedish Civil War of 1597-98 was the result of an attempt to secure the alliance between Poland-Lithuania and Sweden

1598

25 September (Old Style)

The battle of Stångebro was the decisive encounter of the Swedish Civil War of 1597-1598 between Sigismund III, king of Poland-Lithuania and Sweden and his uncle Charles, duke of Södermanland

1600

Outbreak of Polish-Swedish War (to 1629)

 

21 October

Battle of Sekigahara (Japan)

1605

27 September

The Battle of Kircholm, was a major Polish-Lithuanian victory during the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629

1609

The Polish-Muscovite War of 1609-1619 was one consequence of the Russian Time of Troubles (1604-1613).

1610

4 July

The battle of Klushino saw a small Polish-Lithuanian army defeat a much larger Russian and Swedish army that was attempting to relieve the siege of Smolensk (1609-1611).

1611

The Kalmar War (1611-1613) was one of a series of wars between Sweden and Denmark. It was caused by rivalry between the two powers in the Baltic and by Swedish efforts to gain control of Finnmark, the area to the north of Lapland

1613

January

Peace of Knarod: Peace treaty that ended the Kalmar War (1611-1613) between Denmark and Sweden

1617

February

The Peace of Stolbovo ended the Swedish-Russian War of 1613-1617

1618

22 May

Defenestration of Prague, marks outbreak ofThirty Years War (to 1648)

1619

January

Truce of Deuline ends Polish-Muscovite War, 1609-1619

1620

Outbreak of the Polish-Ottoman War of 1620-21, the first conflict between Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire for ninety years.
 

18 September-6 October

The Battle of Cecora was a disastrous Polish-Lithuanian defeat at the hands of an Ottoman army
 

8 November

Battle of the White Hill (Bohemia), Imperial victory that ended the Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years War

1620

September-9 October

The Battle of Chocim saw an Ottoman army fail to defeat a Polish-Lithuanian army camped at Chocim, foiling their planned invasion of the Ukraine.

1622

27 April

Battle of Mingolsheim, Protestant victory temporarily preventing junction of Catholic armies (Thirty Years War)
 

6 May

Battle of Wimpfen, Catholic victory over army of the Margrave of Baden (Thirty Years War)
 

20 June

Battle of Hochst, Christian of Brunswick managed to cross the River Main against strong opposition (Thirty Years War)

 

29 August

Battle of Fleurus, Protestant victory over Imperial army blocking an attempt to relieve siege of Bergen op Zoom

1624

10 June

Treay of Compiegne, France and Holland ally against the Hapsburgs, prolonging Thirty Years War

1626

25 April

Battle of Dessau, (Germany), imperial victory over Protestant army.

 

16 June

Death of Christian of Brunswick, protestant general in Thirty Years War

 

27 August

Battle of Lutter (am Barenberge), Imperial victory over Danish army

 

22 September and 29 September-1 October

The battle of Mewe was a lengthy battle and Swedish victory that came late in the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

 

The Truce of Altmark ended the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

1627

17-18 August

The battle of Dirschau (or Tczew) was a minor Swedish victory during the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

1629

27 June

The battle of Honigfelde, (also known as Trzciana or Sztum) was the last significant battle of the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

 

12 September

The Truce of Altmark ended the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

1635

27 March

Charles I (to 1649) succeeds James I as king of Great Britain and Ireland

1630

November

Start of Siege of Magdeburg

1631

20 May

Fall and Sack of Magdeburg

 

17 September

Battle of Breitenfeld, Swedish victory over Imperial army (30 years war)

1632

The Smolensk War (1632-1634) saw Russia attempt to reconquer lands lost to Poland-Lithuania in the truce of Deuline (1619)

 

April

Formation of League of Heilbronn), Protestant alliance (Thirty Years War)

 

15 April

Battle of Lech, Swedish victory over Tilly's Bavarian/ Imperial force (Thirty Years War)

 

28 October

The siege of Smolensk (to 1 May 1634) was the main action of the Smolensk War (1632-34) between Russian and Poland-Lithuania.

 

16 November

Battle of Lutzen, Swedish victory over Imperial army marred by the death of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

1634

1 March

End of the siege of Smolensk (from 28 October 1632)

 

May

Peace of Polianovka ends the Smolensk War (from 1632)

 

6 September

Battle of Nordlingen (1), victory of combined Imperial and Spanish armies over Protestant army

1637

17 December

Outbreak of Shimabara Rebellion (Japan)

1638

April

Shimabara Rebellion (Japan) ends in failure

1639

First Bishop's War, inconclusion war between Charles I of England and the Scots.

 

18 June

Peace of Berwick, ending First Bishop's War

 

21 October

Battle of the Downs (Naval battle), great Dutch naval victory over the Spanish, fought in neutral English waters.

1640

Second Bishop's War, effective Scottish victory over Charles I of England, leading to summoning of Long Parliament and eventually to English Civil War

 

13 April

Start of Short Parliament

 

5 May

End of Short Parliament

 

28 August

Battle of Newburn upon Tyne, Scottish victory that seals victory for Scots in Second Bishop's War

 

26 October

Treaty of Ripon, marking Scottish victory in the Second Bishops War.

 

3 November

Start of Long Parliament (to 1660)

1642

23 April

Charles I denied entry to Hull, considered to be first action of the First English Civil War (to 1646)

 

23 October

Battle of Edgehill, first major battle of Civil War, with no clear winner

1643

19 January

Battle of Braddock Down, Royalist victory in CIvil War

 

24 March

Battle of Higham, minor Parliamentary victory (Civil War)

 

30 June

Battle of Adwalton Moor

 

10 August

Charles I moves to besiege Gloucester (to 5 September )

 

5 September

Relief force arrives, Charles I abandons Siege of Gloucester (from 10 August)

 

20 September

First battle of Newbury, inconclusive battle that prevented Charles I marching on London

 

11 October

Battle of Winceby, Parliamentary victory (Civil War)

 

13 December

Battle of Alton, Parliamentary victory in Sussex (Civil War)

1644

28 February

Start of Parliamentary Siege of Latham House

 

26 May

Parliamentary Siege of Latham House abandoned on approach of Prince Rupert

 

2 July

Battle of Marston Moor, Parliamentary victory in Civil War

 

1 September

Battle of Tippermuir, victory that revived Royalist fortunes in Scotland (Civil War)

 

17 September

Battle of Montgomery, Parliamentary victory during Civil War

 

29 October

Start of siege of Laugharne castle, (to 3 November), Parliamentary siege of Royalist garrison (English Civil War)

 

3 November

Surrender of Laugharne castle, Royalist stronghold in south Wales.

1645

Death of Miyamoto Musashi, famous Samari and writer

 

6 March

Battle of Jankau, Swedish victory over imperial and Bavarian army (30 Years War)

 

2 May

Battle of Mergentheim, defeat of French army invading central Germany (30 Years War)

 

31 May

Battle of Leicester (England), Royalist victory in first English Civil War.

 

14 June

Battle of Naseby, decisive Parliamentary victory in English Civil War

 

2 July

Battle of Alford, Royalist victory in Scotland (Civil War)

 

10 July

Battle of Langport, defeat of Royalist army in the West (Civil War)

 

1 August

Battle of Colby Moor, Parliamentary victory that helped end the Royalist presence in Pembrokeshire

 

3 August

Battle of Nordlingen, costly French victory over Imperial army (30 Years War)

 

13 September

Battle of Philiphaugh (Scotland), Covenanter victory ending Royalist hopes in Scotland (Civil War)

 

24 September

Battle of Rowton Heath, Parliamentary victory outside Chester (Civil War)

 

14 October

Fall of Basing House, Royalist stronghold (Civil War)

1646

21 March

Battle of Stow on the Wold, defeat of final Royalist army (English Civil War)

 

5 May

Charles I surrenders to Scots, marking end of the First English Civil War, (from 1642)

 

5 June

Battle of Benburb (Ireland), victory of Irish rebels over Scottish army

1648

Second English Civil War, the Army defeat Royalist rebels, the Scots and Parliament.

 

8 May

Battle of St. Fagan's (Wales), Parliamentary victory over Welsh rebels (second civil war)

 

24 October

Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years War (from 1618)

1649

20 January

Execution of Charles I, king of Great Britain and Ireland (from 1625)

1652

19 May

Naval skirmish off Dover signals (battle of Goodwin Sands) start of First Anglo-Dutch War, (to 1654)

 

16 August

The action off Plymouth of 16 August 1652 was a convoy battle early in the First Anglo Dutch War in which Admiral de Ruyter successfully defended a large Dutch convoy against an English fleet.

 

28 August

The battle of Elba (28 August 1652) was a clear Dutch victory early in the First Anglo-Dutch War that gave them control of the Mediterranean.

 

28 September

The battle of Kentish Knock (28 September 1652) was the first major battle of the First Anglo Dutch War, and ended in a narrow English victory.

 

30 November

The battle of Dungeness (30 November 1652) was the most significant Dutch victory during the First Anglo-Dutch War, and saw a fleet under Maarten Tromp win temporary control of the English Channel.

1653

18-20 February

The three day long running battle of Portland (18-20 February 1653) saw the English inflict a heavy defeat on a Dutch fleet under Admiral Maarten Tromp, in the process regaining control of the English Channel, lost after the Dutch victory at Dungeness in the previous November.

 

4 March

The battle of Leghorn of 4 March 1653 was a disastrous English attempt to break a Dutch blockade that was preventing them from uniting the two halves of the English fleet in the Mediterranean.

 

2-3 June

The battle of the Gabbard (or Nieuwpoort) of 2-3 June 1653 was the decisive battle of the First Anglo-Dutch War. It was the first battle to involve the full fleets of both nations, and ended as a major English victory.

 

31 July

The battle of Scheveningen (31 July 1653) was the final major battle during the First Anglo-Dutch War and ended as an English victory that confirmed their dominance won at the Gabbard Bank in June.

1654

Start of Thirteen Years War (Poland-Lithuania vs Muscovy)

 

5 April

Treaty of Westminster ends First Anglo-Dutch War (from 1652), marking an English victory

 

 

July

Start of the Siege of Smolensk

 

3 October

Smolensk surrenders to the Muscovites

1654

November

The treaty of Wilno (or Nimieza) ended the first period of fighting between Poland and Russia in the Thirteen Years War (1654-1667)

1655

Outbreak of the Northern War of 1655-60, one of three wars that involved the majority of the Baltic powers of the time.

 

25 July

The Surrender of Ujście saw the virtual collapse of Polish resistance to the Swedish invasion of 1655.

 

1 December

The Treaty of Vienna saw the Emperor Ferdinand III agreed to help the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania during the Northern War of 1655-60.

1657

27 May

The Treaty of Vienna saw the Emperor Leopold agree to provide 12,000 troops to aid the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania in the Northern War of 1655-60

 

June

Outbreak of the Swedish Danish War, 1657-58, a short conflict that ended with a disastrous defeat for the Danes

1658

June

Outbreak of the Swedish-Danish War of 1658-60 which saw the Danes regain some of the ground lost in the war of 1657-8

1660

3 May 1660

The Peace of Oliva, ended the Northern War of 1655-60

 

6 June

The Peace of Copenhagen ended the Swedish-Danish War of 1658-60.

 

27 June

The Battle of Polonka, saw a Polish-Lithuanian army defeat a Muscovite army in Lithuania.

 

Long Parliament finally votes itself out of existence (from 1640)

1665

May

Declaration of Second Anglo-Dutch War (to 1667)

 

3/13 June

The battle of Lowestoft (3 June 1665 O.S./ 13 June 1665 N.S.) was the first major battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War and was a rare British victory in a war that came to be dominated by the Dutch.

 

2/12 August

The battle of Bergen (2/12 August 1665) was an unsuccessful attempt by the British to capture a Dutch convoy that had taken shelter in the neutral harbour of Bergen in Norway.

1666

1-4/11-14 May

The Four Days' Battle (1-4 June 1666) was a major Dutch victory during the Second Anglo-Dutch War that saw a badly outnumbered British fleet suffer heavy casualties in one of the largest and longest battles fought during the age of sail.

 

25-26 July

The St. James's Day Battle (25-26 July 1666) was a British victory during the Second Anglo-Dutch War that proved that the Royal Navy had not been too badly damaged during the Dutch victory in the Four Days' Battle at the start of June.

 

10/20 August

'Holmes's Bonfire' of 10/20 August 1666 was a successful British attack on Dutch shipping that came in the aftermath of their victory in the battle of St. James's Day on 25/26 July.

1667

30 January

The Truce of Andrusovo ended the Thirteen Years War (1654-67) between Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania.

 

19 or 20 May

The battle of Nevis was a confused clash between the British and an Allied Franco-Dutch fleet in the West Indies that may have prevented an Allied invasion of Nevis.

 

24 May

French invasion of Spanish Netherlands starts War of Devolution (to 1668)

 

9-14/ 19-24 June

The Medway raid of 9-14/19-24 June 1667 saw a Dutch fleet sail into the Thames and attack the British fleet in its anchorage in the Medway, causing a panic in London and winning a victory that helped bring the Second Anglo-Dutch War to an end.
 

25 June

The battle of Martinique was a British victory over a French fleet that came towards the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War and secured their position in the West Indies

 

2 July

The Dutch attack on Landguard Fort (2 July 1667) was intended to clear the way for an attack on the anchorage at Harwich, but was repulsed by one of the earliest precursors of the Royal Marines (Second Dutch War)
 

21 July

Treaty of Breda marks end of Second Anglo-Dutch War (from 1665)

1668

2 May

Treaty of Aix-le-Chapelle ends War of Devolution (from 1667)

1672

13 March

English attack on Dutch convoy marks start of Third Anglo-Dutch War (to 1674)

 

28 May/ 7 June

The battle of Solebay (28 May/ 7 June 1672) was a Dutch naval victory early in the Third Anglo-Dutch War that prevented a planned Anglo-French invasion of the northern Netherlands

1673

28 May/ 7 June

The first battle of the Schooneveld (28 May/ 7 June 1673) was the first of three battles in Dutch coastal waters during 1673 that prevented the British and French from landing an invasion army in the Netherlands (Third Anglo-Dutch War).
 

4/14 June

The second battle of Schooneveld (4/14 June 1673) was the second of three battles that prevented the French and British from successfully landing an invasion army on the Dutch coast (Third Anglo-Dutch War).
 

11/ 21 August

The battle of Texel or Kijkduin (11/21 August 1673) was the third of three inconclusive battles that prevented the British and French from landing an invasion army on the Dutch coast, and that helped to convince the British to make peace.

1674

19 February

Treaty of Westminster ends Third Anglo-Dutch War (from 1672)

1675

The Scanian War (1675-1679) is generally taken to mark the beginning of the decline of Sweden as a Great Power.

 

18/28 June 1675

The battle of Fehrbellin saw Frederic William, elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia defeat a Swedish army under Karl Gustav Wrangel that had invaded Brandenburg late in 1674

1676

4/14 December

The Battle of Lund took place during the Danish invasion of Scania and saw Charles XI of Sweden inflict a bloody defeat on the Danish army, preventing them from easily recapturing the Danish provinces lost in 1660 and 1645

1679

29 June

The Peace of St. Germain ended fighting in the Scanian War between Sweden and Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg

1690

1 July

Battle of the Boyne (Ireland)

1691

12 July

Battle of Aughrim (Ireland)

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