4000 BC 1000 BC 1 1000 1500 1700 1800 1850 1900 1925 1950

 

1 A.D.

 

 

43

  Battle of Medway (England)

83

  Battle of Mons Graupius (Scotland)

486

  The battle of Soissons (486 AD) was the first recorded victory won by Clovis I, king of the Franks, and saw him defeat Syagrius, the ruler of the last Roman enclave in northern Gaul.

496

  The battle of Tolbiac or Zulpich (496 AD) might have been a victory won by Clovis and other Franks that prevented a westward movement of the Alemanni.

500

  Battle of Mons Badonicus, c.500
    The battle of the Ouche (500 AD) was a victory won by Clovis, king of the Franks, during an otherwise unsuccessful intervention in a Burgundian family dispute.
    The siege of Avignon (500) saw the Burgundian king Gundobar hold off a besieging Frankish army led by Clovis I for long enough to convince Clovis to offer peace terms.

500-501

  The siege of Vienne (c.500-501 AD) was the final act in a Burgundian civil war that had briefly involved the Frankish king Clovis I, but that ended with the victory of Clovis's opponent Gundobar.

507

  The battle of Vouille (507) was a significant victory for Clovis I, king of the Franks, and allowed him to conquer Aquitaine, taking it from the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse

507-8

  The siege of Arles (507-508) saw the Visigothic defenders of the city fight off a Frankish and Burgundian army until the Ostrogoths of King Theodoric arrived and lifted the siege.

511

  Death of Clovis I, king of the Franks

577

  Battle of Deorham (England)

603

  Battle of Degsastan

c.613-616

  Battle of Chester

616

  Battle of the Idle (Yorkshire)
Death of AEthelfrith, king of Northumbria, killed at the battle of the Idle

624

17 March

The battle of Badr was an early victory for the prophet Muhammad over the Quraysh tribe of Mecca

625

23 March

The battle of Mount Uhud was a minor Muslim defeat in the period after the battle of Badr

627

 

The battle of the Ditch was the largest and last attempt by the Qurayesh tribe to defeat the Muslim forces of Muhammad

632

  Battle of Hatfield Chase

633

  Battle of Rowley Burn
Death of Cadwallon, king of Gwynedd, at battle of Rowley Burn

641

5 August

Battle of Maserfelth

654

 

Battle of Winwaed (England)
Death of Penda, king of Mercia, at battle of Winwæd

670

  Death of Oswiu, king of Bernicia and Northumbria

685

20 May

Battle of Nechtansmere (Scotland)

838

  Battle of Hingston Down

851

  Battle of Aclea, 851 (England)

871

8 January

Battle of Ashdown

878

May Battle of Edington

902

  Battle of the Holme

910

5 August

Battle of Tettenhall (England)

937

  Battle of Brunanburgh

991

August

Battle of Maldon

1000

   

1014

23 April

Battle of Clontarf (Ireland)

1016

18 October

Battle of Ashingdon

1029

  Birth of Alp Arslam, Seljuk Sultan (to 1072)

1063

  Start of reign of Alp Arslam, Seljuk Sultan (to 1072)

1066

20 September

Battle of Fulford
 

25 September

Battle of Stamford Bridge
 

14 October

Battle of Hastings, battle that brought William the Conqueror to the English throne

1068

  Accession of Romanus IV Diogenes, Byzantine Emperor (to 1071)

1071

19 August

Battle of Manzikert (Byzantine Empire), crushing defeat of Byzantine army led by the Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes inflicted by the Seljouks of Alp Arslan
Deposition and murder of Romanus Diogenes

1072

  Death of Alp Arslam, Seljuk Sultan (from 1063)

1081

  Battle of Mynydd Carn (Wales)

1093

13 November

Battle of Alnwick (England)

1096

  First year of First Crusade (to 1099)

1097

14 May

Start of Siege of Nicaea (to 19 June) (First Crusade)
 

19 June

Surrender of Nicaea to Byzantine troops, much to annoyance of crusaders

 

1 July

Battle of Dorylaeum, Crusaders narrowly escape disaster at the hands of the Turks of Rum

 

21 October

Start of Crusader siege of Antioch (to 3 June 1098)

 

31 December

Battle of Harenc (First Crusade), defeat of Muslim force coming to relief of Antioch.

1098

9 February

Battle of Harenc (First Crusade, defeat of second Muslim force coming to relief of Antioch

 

3 June

City of Antioch falls to the Crusaders (from 21 October 1097)

 

5 June

Start of Kerboga's siege of Antioch

 

28 June

Crusaders win battle of the Orontes, ending Kerboga's siege of Antioch

1099

 

Last year of First Crusade (from 1096)

 

9 June

First day of Siege of Jerusalem (to 18 July), First Crusade

 

18 July

Fall of Jerusalem (from 9 June), First Crusade

 

12 August

Battle of Ascalon, final victory of the First Crusade

1106

28 September

Battle of Tinchebrai (France)

1128

21 June

Battle of Thielt (or Hackespol), (Flanders), victory for William Clito in fight for county of Flanders

1138

22 August

Battle of the Standard

1141

2 February

Battle of Lincoln
 

14 September

Rout of Winchester

1147

 

Start of Second Crusade (to 1149)

1149

 

End of Second Crusade, 1147-1149

1164

  First of Nur ad-Din's three invasions of Egypt. Egypt is finally conquered during the third campaign of 1168-69.

1167

18 March

The battle of Babain (18 March 1167) was an inconclusive battle during Nur ad-Din's second invasion of Egypt that is best know for being Saladin's first recorded major battle.
 

April-August

The siege of Alexandria (April-August 1167) was Saladin's first recorded independent command, and he managed to hold the city until both sides were exhausted and a peace treaty could be negotiated.

1169

25 October-19 December

The siege of Damietta (25 October-19 December 1169) was the main event in a failed Crusader and Byzantine attempt to conquer Egypt and undo the Syrian occupation of that country.

1170

Mid December

The siege of Darum (Mid December 1170) was part of Saladin's first major offensive against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, and was abandoned after a relief army appeared on the scene.
 

31 December

The siege of Ayla/ al-Aqaba (31 December 1170) was one of Saladin's earliest successes against the Crusaders and saw him gain control of a key point on the pilgrim route from Egypt to Mecca and Medina.

1171

21 September-October

The siege of Montreal (21 September-October 1171) was a controversial episode of the career of Saladin after he lifted the siege, probably because his overlord Nur ad-Din was approaching with a second army.

1174

13 June

Battle of Alnwick
 

29 July-2 August

The siege of Alexandria of 29 July- 2 August 1174 was a brief and very unsuccessful attempt by the Normans of Sicily to play a part in the overthrow of Saladin, then vizier of Egypt.
  October Saladin leaves Cairo and moves to Damascus at the start of the series of campaigns that eventually secure his control of Syria (to 1186)
 

30 December

Start of the siege of Aleppo (30 December 1174-March 1175), Saladin's first attempt to capture Aleppo and take control of Nur ad-Din's young son and heir.

1175

March

Saladin lifts the siege of Aleppo
 

13 April

The battle of the Horns of Hamah (13 April 1175) was an important battle during Saladin's campaign to gain control of Syria and saw him defeat a combined army from Aleppo and Mosul.

1176

22 April

The battle of Tall as-Sultan (22 April 1176) was a major victory won by Saladin during his conquest of Syria, and saw him defeat the allied armies of Aleppo and Mosul.
 

15 May-21 June

The siege of Azaz (15 May-21 June 1176) was one of a series of successes for Saladin in the aftermath of his victory at the battle of Tall as-Sultan (22 April 1176) and helped put pressure on the authorities in Aleppo.
 

29 May

Battle of Legnano (Italy), victory for league of Italian cities led by Milan over the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.

1177

25 November

Battle of Ramleh, defeat that ended an early invasion of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by Saladin

1178

  The battle of Gujarat or Kayadara (1178) was a defeat suffered by Muhammad of Ghur during his first campaign against a Hindu ruler in India

1186

  Start of Saladin's Holy War (t0 1192)
 

3 March

Treaty between ruler of Mosul and Saladin ends his conquest of Syria, giving Saladin a united empire that stretches from Egypt, through Syria and into Mesopotamia.

1187

4 July

Battle of Hattin, defeat that ended the existance of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

1189

  Start of Third Crusade (to 1189-1192)
 

August

Start of Crusader Siege of Acre (to July 1191)

1190

  Birth of Subatai Ba'adur (to 1242), Mongol general

1191

 

The first battle of Taraori (or Tarain) of 1191 was a rare defeat suffered by Muhammad of Ghur during the series of campaigns in Northern India that laid the foundations of the Delhi Sultanate

 

12 July


Fall of Acre to Crusaders now led by Richard the Lion Heart (from August 1189)
 

7 September

Battle of Arsuf

1192

 

The siege of Bhatinda of 1191-2 took place between the two battles of Taraoir (1191 and 1192) fought between Muhammad of Ghur and Prithviraja Chauhana III of Delhi, and saw Prithviraja recapture the fortress before suffering defeat and death during the second battle of Taraoir

   

The second battle of Taraori (or Tarain) of 1192 was a decisive victory won by Muhammad of Ghur one year after he had suffered a rare defeat on the same site and that left northern India vulnerable to conquest

   

End of Third Crusade (from 1189) and Saladin's Holy War (from 1186)

1193 or 1194

 

The battle of Chandwar (1193 or 1194) was the second major victory won by Muhammad of Ghor in northern India, after the second battle of Taraori.

1202

  Start of Fourth Crusade (to 1204)

1204

  End of Fourth Crusade (from 1202)

1213

13 October

Battle of Steppes (Belgium), victory of bishop of Liege over raiding forces of Henry, duke of Brabant, during period of anarchy in the Holy Roman Empire

1214

27 July

Battle of Bouvines, defeat of King John's allies by Philip Augustus of France; key battle in establishing French kingdom

1215

  Start of First Barons War (to 1217)

1217

20 May

Battle of Lincoln

1218

  Start of Fifth Crusade (to 1221)

1221

  End of Fifth Crusade (from 1218)
    The battle of the Indus, 24 November 1221, marked the first appearance of the Mongols in India, but the battle was the final stage of Genghis Khan's war against Khwarazm, and after his victory Genghis left India alone.

1223

  Battle of the Kalka River, Mongol victory over much larger Russian army

1228

  Start of Sixth Crusade (to 1229)

1229

  End of Sixth Crusade, Sixth, (from 1228)

1241

March

Battle of Chmielnik, Mongol destruction of the Polish royal army.
 

5 April

Battle of Liegnitz (Poland), Mongol defeat of a large Polish army raised by the Polish nobility
 

27 April

Battle of Sajo, (Hungary), Mongol victory over a huge Hungarian army led by King Bela

 

22 December

The siege of Lahore (to 22 December 1241) was an early Mongol success against the Delhi Sultanate, and took advantage of a state of political confusion in the Sultanate.

1242

  Mongol army withdraws from Hungary and Poland, probably due to death of Oktai Khan
Death of Subatai Ba'adur (from 1190), Mongol general

1248

  Start of Seventh Crusade (to 1254)

1250

8 February

Battle of Mansura (Egypt), bloody victory during Seventh Crusade that left the crusaders too weak to achieve their aims
 

6 April

Battle of Fariskur (Egypt), final defeat of the Seventh Crusade

1254

  End of Seventh Crusade (from 1248)

1264

  Start of Second Barons War (to 1267)
 

14 May 1264

Battle of Lewes

1265

4 August

Battle of Evesham

1266

June

Start of the siege of Kenilworth
 

December

Surrender of Kenilworth castle

1270

  Eighth Crusade bogs down in Tunisia

1277

  Start of the Welsh Wars of Edward I (to 1282)

1282

11 December

Battle of Orewin Bridge (Wales). Death of Llewellyn ap Gruffyd marks effective end of the Welsh Wars of Edward I, (from 1277)

1289

  Othman, founder of Ottoman power, inherits his fathers realm.

1295

22 January

Battle near Conway

1296

27 April

Battle of Dunbar (Scotland)

1297

11 September

Battle of Stirling Bridge (Scotland)

1298

22 July

Battle of Falkirk

 

5 February

The battle of Jalandhar (modern Jullundu) of 5 February 1298 was the first of a series of four major battles that dramatically reduced the Mongol threat to the Delhi sultanate.

1299

 

The battle of Kili of 1299 ended a Mongol siege of Delhi, and was the second of four major battles that reduced the Mongol threat to the Delhi Sultanate.

1305

20 December

The battle of Amroha (20 December 1305) was a major victory for the Delhi Sultanate over a Mongol army, and was the third of four Mongol defeats that greatly reduced the threat they posed to India.

1306

 

The battle of Ravi (1306) was the fourth and last of a series of defeats suffered by Mongol armies in the Delhi Sultanate that greatly reduced the Mongol threat to northern India.

 

20 June

Battle of Ruthven

1307

May

Battle of Loudun Hill (Scotland)

1314

24 June

Battle of Bannockburn
 

November

Battle of Morgarten, (Switzerland), victory of Swiss infantry over invading Hapsburg army

1318

14 October 1318

Battle of Dundalk

1319

20 September

Battle of Myton (Yorkshire)

1322

16 March

Battle of Boroughbridge

1326

  Death of Othman, founder of Ottoman power, succeeded by his son Orkhan (to 1361), probable organiser of the Ottoman state.

1327

25 January

Start of reign of Edward III, king of England, (to 1377)

1331

  The Genko War (1331-33) was a struggle between the supporters of the Emperor Go-Daigo and the Kamakura Shogunate which ended as an Imperial victory and led to the short-lived Kemmu restoration, the only period in which the Emperor held direct power between 1192 and the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in the nineteenth century
 

October

The battle of Karasaki Beach (October 1331) was the first battle of the Genko War (1331-33), and saw the Monastic supports of the Emperor Go-Daigo defeat a cavalry force sent to capture him.
 

3-31 October

The siege of Kasagi (3-31 October 1331) saw the forces of the Kamakura Shogunate capture the Emperor Go-Daigo's refuge at Kasagi, a success that for a time appeared to have crushed the Imperial cause (Genko War, 1331-33).
 

c.31 October-20 November

The siege of Akasaki (c.31 October-20 November 1331) saw the forces of the Shogunate attack and capture the castle of Kusunoki Masashige, a supporter of the Emperor Go-Daigo, although Kusunoki escaped and continued the fight from nearby mountains.

1332

28 April

The capture of Akasaki Castle (28 April 1332) was achieved by a surprise attack and saw Kusunoki Masashige recapture his own castle at Akasaka, which had fallen to the forces of the Shogunate in the previous year (Seige of Akasaka, November 1331).
 

14 June

The battle of the Yodo River (14 June 1332) was a victory won by Kusunoki Masashige over the forces of the Shogunate at the Yodo River (modern Osaka).
 

11 August

Battle of Dupplin Muir

1333

28 January

The battle of Hoshigaoka (28 January 1333) saw the revolt against the Shogunate spread onto Shikoku Island (Genko War, 1331-33).
 

February

The siege of Yoshino Castle (February 1333) saw a large Bakufu army capture the castle after an eight day siege, forcing Prince Norinaga to flee to safety.
 

18 February-14 March

The siege of Akasaka (18 February-c.14 March 1333) was one of the few successes won by a massive Bakufu army at the start of the last year of the Genko War (1331-33).
 

27 March

The battle of Maya (27 March 1333) was the first of a series of victories won by Akamatsu Norimura, a supporter of the Emperor Go-Daigo, during an unsuccessful attempt to capture Kyoto.
 

March

The siege of Chihaya (March-22 June 1333) was the turning point in the Genko War (1331-33). The Shogunate's failure to capture the castle meant that their main army was pinned down, encouraged pro-Imperial revolts around Japan and forced them to commit ever more troops to the fighting.
 

24 April

The battle of Sakabe (24 April 1333) was a minor skirmish in which the Imperial loyalist Akamatsu Norimura was nearly captured by the forces of the Shogunate.
 

25 April

The battle of Segawa (25 April 1333) was the last real success during the Imperial loyalist Akamatsu Norimura's attempt to capture Kyoto.
 

26 April

The battle of the Twelfth Day of the Third Month (26 April 1333) was an unsuccessful attempt by the pro-Imperial Akamatsu Norimura to try and defeat the Shogunate's garrison in Kyoto
 

29 April

The battle of Yamazaki (29 April 1333) saw a force from the Rokuhara garrison of Kyoto fail to drive away a pro-Imperial army under Akamatsu Norimura that was threatening to cut off supplies to the city.
 

13 May

The battle of Funanoe (13 May 1333) was an unsuccessful attempt by the exiled emperor Go-Daigo's jailor to recapture the emperor after he had escaped from exile on Oki, an island to the north-west of Honshu.
 

17 May

The battle of the Third Day of the Fourth Month (17 May 1333) was a second failed attempt to take Kyoto made by the pro-Imperial leader Akamatsu Norimura.
 

10 June

The battle of Koganawate (10 June 1333) was notable for the death of Nagoya Takaie, one leader of a Shogunate army that had been sent to Kyoto to secure control of the area around the Imperial capital and attack the Emperor Go-Daigo's new court at Funanoe.
 

20 June

The battle of Rokuhara (20 June 1333) was one of the decisive battles of the Genko War, and saw the Shogunate general Ashikaga Takauji turn on his former allies, side with the Emperor Go-Daigo and drive the forces of the Shogunate out of their headquarters in Rokuhara.
 

22 June

End of the siege of Chihaya (from March)
 

23 June

The battle of Kotesashi (23 June 1333) was the first battle in the campaign that led to the capture of Kamakura and the final fall of the Kamakura Shogunate (Genko War, 1331-33). It was an inconclusive battle, and the fighting resuming on the following day.
 

24 June

The battle of Kumegawa (24 June 1333) was the second of two battles in two days in the campaign that led to the capture of Kamakura and the fall of the Kamakura Shogunate (Genko War, 1331-33), and was won by the pro-Imperial forces of Nitta Yoshisada.
 

27-28 June

The two-day long battle of Bubaigawara (27-28 June 1333) saw the defenders of Kamakura miss an opportunity to defeat the pro-Imperial army of Nitta Yoshisada, thus ensuring that the fighting would move to the Shogunate's capital at Kamakura
 

30 June-4 July

The siege of Kamakura (30 June-4 July 1333) was the final major battle of the Genko War (1331-33) and saw the army of Nitta Yoshisada capture the capital of the Kamakura Shogunate after a five-day long battle.
 

19 July

The battle of Tsukushi (7 July 1333) was the final event in a complex plot against Hojo Hidetoki, the military governor of Kyushu, and saw him defeated by two of the three original plotters against him.
 

7 July

Battle of Halidon Hill

1337

  Outbreak of Hundred Years War (to 1453)

1339

21 June

Battle of Laupen (Switzerland), victory of fledgling Swiss confederacy over league of local feudal lords.

1340

24 July

Battle of Sluys, great English navel victory in Hundred Years War.

1346

26 August

Battle of Crecy
 

4 September

Start of the siege of Calais by Edward III
 

17 October

Battle of Neville's Cross (Northern England)

1347

27 June

Battle of La Roche Derien (Brittany), English victory over Charles of Blois, French claimant to duchy of Brittany
 

4 August

Surrender of Calais to Edward III

1351

8 April

Battle of Taillebourg (France)

1352

14 August

Battle of Mauron (Brittany)

1356

19 September

Battle of Poitiers, major English victory in Hundred Years War

1361

  Death of Orkhan, son of Othman, early Ottoman ruler (from 1326), succeeded by Murad, (to 1389), his second son

1364

  Birth of Henry Percy, 'Hotspur'

1365

  The battle of the Mire or Tashkent (1365) was a rare defeat for Tamerlane, and came during a struggle for power within the divided Chaghatay Khanate.

1367

3 April

Battle of Najera (Castile)

1370

  The battle of Balkh (1370) was a key success in Tamerlane's rise to power, and established him as the ruler of the western Chaghatay in Transoxiana

1372

  Death of Sir Walter de Mauny, one of Edward III's most important commanders during the Hundred Years War
    The siege of Kath (1372) was an early success during Tamerlane's first expedition into Khwarezm, and was followed by one of the first examples of the atrocities that so often followed when Tamerlane captured a city.

1377

21 June

Death of Edward III, king of England, (from 1327)

1379

 

The siege of Urganch of 1379 was the key victory during Tamerlane's fourth war in Khwarezm, and saw the city fall after a siege of three months.

1380

13 July

Death of Bertrand du Guesclin, constable of France, successful French commander during Hundred Years War.

1381

  The siege of Fushanj (1381) was Tamerlane's first military successes in Khorasan, and a precursor to his first short siege of Herat
    The siege of Herat of 1381 was an easy success that ended Tamerlane's first major campaign in Khorasan and saw his empire expand out of its original base in Transoxiana into the former empire of the Il-Khans in Persian for the first time

1383

  The revolt of Herat of 1383 was a short-lived rebellion against Tamerlane that ended with a massacre and the increasingly familiar site of towers of skulls outside the city
    The siege of Isfizar (1383) saw Tamerlane put down a revolt in a city south of Herat, and ended with yet another of his trademark atrocities

1385

14 August

Battle of Aljubarotta (Portugal), victory for John, master of Avis, establishing him as king of Portugal

1386

9 July

Battle of Sempach, (Switzerland), Swiss victory over Leopold, duke of Austria, who died in the battle

1387

11 March

Battle of Castagnaro (Italy), victory by Paduan army led by John Hawkwood, over a larger Veronese army
 

19 December

Battle of Radcot Bridge, victory by Richard II's enemies over a loyalist force.

1388

5 August

Battle of Otterburn

1389

20 June

Death of Murad, Ottoman Sultan (since 1361) at Battle of Kosovo (Serbia), Ottoman victory over last Serbia resistance led by Prince Lazar

1393

  The battle of Shiraz (1393) was the final clash between Tamerlane and the Muzaffarid Dynasty of southern Persia, and was a victory for Tamerlane that was followed by the total destruction of the dynasty.
 

20 November-11 December

The siege of Takrit (20 November-11 December 1393) was an example of Tamerlane's skills in siege warfare and saw his army capture a bandit stronghold said to be impregnable

1395

22 April

The battle of the Terek River (22 April 1395) was the final clash between Tamerlane and Toktamish, leader of the Golden Horde, and ended in a decisive victory for Tamerlane.

1396

25 September

Battle of Nicopolis (modern Bulgaria), Turkish victory over a strong Hungarian and crusader army.
    The siege of Yazd (1396) saw an army led by two of Tamerlane's grandsons defeat a rebellion centred on the city of Yazd and ended with a rare example of clemency on the part of Tamerlane.

1401

May-9 July

The siege of Baghdad (May-9 July 1401) was one of Tamerlane's most destructive victories, and saw the city virtually destroyed after it was taken by storm at the end of a forty day long siege

1402

28 July

The battle of Ankara or Angora (28 July 1402) was a major victory won by Tamerlane over the Ottoman Army of Sultan Bayezid that nearly destroyed the Ottoman Empire, and as a side-effect gave the Byzantine Empire another fifty years of life.
 

14 September

Battle of Homildon Hill
 

December

The siege of Smyrna (December 1402) saw the armies of Tamerlane capture the last Christian stronghold on the mainland of Anatolia

1403

21 July

Battle of Shrewsbury
Death of Henry Percy, 'Hotspur', killed at the battle of Shrewsbury

1408

19 February

Battle of Bramham Moor

1415

19 August

Start of the siege of Harfleur
 

22 September

Capture of Harfleur by Henry V
 

25 October

Battle of Agincourt

1420

  Outbreak of Bohemian War (to 1434), Czech rebellion triggered by martyrdom of John Huss.

1421

21 March

Battle of Bauge (France), rare French victory in open battle during Hundred Years War.

1422

30 June

Battle of Arbedo (Italy), defeat of an invading Swiss army by Milanese forces.

1424

17 August

Battle of Verneuil

1428

September

Start of siege of Orleans

1429

12 February

Battle of the Herrings (France)
 

May

Relief of Orleans by Joan of Arc
 

18 June

Battle of Patay

1434

16 June

Bohemian War ends (from 1420) with the victory of the moderate faction over the religious 'taborite' faction at the battle of Lipan

1444

26 May

Battle of St. Jacob, (Switzerland) Pyrrhic victory for the French over a much smaller Swiss army after which the French withdrew.

1449

  Battle of T'u-mu (China), Mongol victory over Chinese army that resulted in the capture of the Emperor.

1450

15 April

Battle of Formigny

1453

2 April

Start of siege of Constantinople, by the Ottoman Empire led by Sultan Mahomet II
 

29 May

Fall of Constantinople, to Ottoman forces led by Sultan Mahomet II, ending the Byzantine Empire
 

17 July

Battle of Castillon, French victory that ended the Hundred Years War (from 1337)
 

24 August

The 'battle' of Heworth (24 August 1453) was a skirmish between the Neville and Percy families that raised tension in the north of England in the period immediately before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses

1454

31 October or 1 November

The battle of Stamford Bridge (31 October or 1 November 1454) was a clash between the Neville and Percy families fought in the year before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, and a sign of the increasing instability brought on by the mental illness of Henry VI.

1455

22 May

The first battle of St. Albans (22 May 1455) was the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, and was a Yorkist victory that saw Richard, duke of York temporarily take control of Henry VI's government.

1459

23 September

The battle of Blore Heath (23 September 1459) was the only significant Yorkist success after the resumption of open warfare in 1459, part of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses.
 

12-13 October

The battle of Ludford Bridge (12-13 October 1459) was a humiliating defeat that appeared to have ended any hopes of a Yorkist victory in the Wars of the Roses.

1460

15 January

The raid on Sandwich of 15 January 1460 saw a Yorkist force based at Calais attack Sandwich, capturing both a Lancastrian fleet being built in the port and the commander of the garrison (Wars of the Roses).
 

June

The capture of Sandwich (June 1460) was a key Yorkist success that allowed the exiled earls of Salisbury, Warwick and March to invade England from their base at Calais at the start of the campaign that ended with the great Yorkist victory at Northampton.
 

2-19 July

The siege of the Tower of London (2-19 July 1460) saw the Lancastrian forces in London isolated in the Tower while the main Yorkist army moved north to victory at Northampton (Wars of the Roses)
 

10 July

The battle of Northampton (10 July 1460) was a major Yorkist victory that transformed their fortunes after their disasterous failure at Ludford Bridge in 1459, and that ended with the capture of Henry VI and the death of several important Lancastrian leaders.
 

30 December

The battle of Wakefield (30 December 1460) was a major Lancastrian victory that resulted in the death of Richard, duke of York, his son Edmund of Rutland and one of his most important followers, Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury.

1461

2 February

The battle of Mortimer's Cross (2 February 1461) was Edward, earl of March's first battlefield victory and was the start of a campaign that would end with him securely crowned as King Edward IV.
 

17 February

The second battle of St. Albans (17 February 1461) was a Lancastrian victory that opened the road to London and appeared to give them a chance to take advantage of their earlier victory at Wakefield, where Richard, duke of York, had been killed.
 

27-28 March

The battle of Ferrybridge (27-28 March 1461) took place on the day before the battle of Towton and saw the Yorkists force their way across the River Aire at Ferrybridge, defeating a Lancastrian attempt to hold the line of the river.
 

29 March

The battle of Towton (29 March 1461) was the decisive battle of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw the young Edward IV defeat one of the largest Lancastrian armies to take to the field during the war.
 

16 October

The battle of Twt Hill (16 October 1461) was a Yorkist victory that ended open Lancastrian resistance to Edward IV in most of Wales, leaving only Harlech in Lancastrian hands.

1462

July

The siege of Alnwick Castle (July 1462) saw a Yorkist army capture the castle, which changed hands repeatedly between 1461 and 1464.
 

December

The siege of Bamburgh Castle (December 1462) was a Yorkist victory that briefly gave them control of Bamburgh Castle, on the Northumbrian coast.

The siege of Dunstanburgh Castle of December 1462 was a Yorkist victory that helped secure temporary control of the main Northumbrian castles but that was soon undone.

The siege of Alnwick (December 1462-6 January 1463) saw the castle captured by the Yorkists, although only after a Lancastrian and Scottish relief army had rescued the garrison.

1463

6 January

Surrender of Alnwick Castle at end of short siege.
 

June-July

The siege of Norham (June-July 1463) was the most active Scottish intervention in the fighting in Northumberland in 1461-64 but ended as an embarrassing fiasco after the Lancastrian-Scottish army fled in the face of a Yorkist relief force.
 

30 September

The siege of St. Michael's Mount (30 September 1473-February 1474) was the last military threat to Edward IV's rule, and saw two of the last Lancastrian peers hold the castle for five months before finally surrendering

1464

February

End of the siege of St. Michael's Mount (30 September 1473-February 1474)
 

25 April

The battle of Hedgeley Moor (25 April 1464) was a Yorkist victory that marked the beginning of the end of Lancastrian resistance in Northumberland.
 

15 May

The battle of Hexham (15 May 1464) was the final battle of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw the Yorkists defeat a Lancastrian army led by Henry Beaufort, duke of Somerset, ending a dangerous Lancastrian revolt in Northumberland.
 

June-July

The siege of Bamburgh Castle of June-July 1464 was a Yorkist victory that ended the Lancastrian campaign in Northumberland that had begun in the aftermath of the battle of Towton, and was also the first occasion when an English castle was defeated by gunpowder artillery.

1468

August

The siege of Harlech Castle (1461-14 August 1468) is famous as the longest siege in British history. For the last four years of the siege Harlech was the only place in England or Wales in Lancastrian hands, and acted as a base for their plots.

1469

26 July

The battle of Edgecote (26 July 1469) was the first fighting in the second phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw a rebel army supported by the earl of Warwick defeat a Royal army led by the earls of Pembroke and Devon, leaving Edward IV vulnerable to capture.

1470

12 March 1470

The battle of Losecote Field (or Empingham) of 12 March 1470 saw the defeat of Richard Neville, earl of Warwick's second attempt within a year to gain power over Edward IV and saw Warwick forced into exile, where he formed a surprising alliance with the Lancastrians.

1471

14 April

The battle of Barnet, 14 April 1471, was the first of two victories that re-established Edward IV on the throne after he was briefly deposed late in 1470. The battle ended with the death of Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, the 'kingmaker', the man whose ambitions had caused the renewal of the Wars of the Roses after half a decade of peace.
 

4 May

The battle of Tewkesbury (4 May 1471) was a Yorkist victory that saw the death of the Lancastrian heir, Prince Edward, and ended any realistic chances that the Lancastrians could overthrow Edward IV.
 

12-15 May

The siege of London (12-15 May 1471) was a brief attack on the city that threatened to revive the Lancastrian cause, which had appeared to be lost after the disaster of Tewkesbury, but that failed after two attacks on the city defences were repulsed.

1476

2 March

Battle of Granson (Switzerland), Swiss victory over invading forces of Charles the Rash, duke of Burgundy
 

22 June

Battle of Morat (Switzerland), Swiss victory over second invading army led by Charles the Rash, duke of Burgundy

1485

22 August

The battle of Bosworth Field (22 August 1485) was the final  major battle of the Wars of the Roses, and saw the Lancastrian claimant to the throne, Henry Tudor, defeat and kill Richard III, the last of the Yorkist monarchs.

1487

16 June

The battle of Stoke (16 June 1487) was the last battle of the Wars of the Roses and saw Henry VII defeat the pretender Lambert Simnel and his allies.

1494

 

The First Italian War/ Italian War of Charles VIII (1494-96) was an unsuccessful French attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples, and helped trigger over half a century of warfare in Italy, which ended with Spain as the dominant power. The Italian Wars last until 1559.

1495

  The battle of Kan-Bai (1495) was an early battle in the series of struggles that followed the death of Sultan Mahmud Mirza of Samarkand in January 1495
 

May-June

The siege of Asfara (May-June 1495) was an early success for Babur, then the recently installed king of Fergana, and saw him defeat a rebellion raised in the name of Sultan Baisanghar Mirza of Samarkand
 

28 June

The battle of Seminara (28 June 1495) saw the first appearance of the great Spanish general Fernández Gonsalo de Cordoba in Italy, and was a rare defeat at the hands of the French (First Italian War).
 

6 July

The battle of Fornovo (6 July 1495) was an unsuccessful attempt by an Italian army to stop Charles VIII of France during his retreat from Naples in the summer of 1495.

1496

Winter-Spring

The siege of Hisor in the late winter and spring of 1496 was the main event in a brief war between the Timurid sultans of Samarkand and Khorasan, and the successful defence of the city effectively ended the war.
 

July-October/ November

The siege of Samarkand of July-October/ November 1496 was the first of a series of attempts made by Babur to seize the city

1496

May/ June-November

The siege of Samarkand of (May/June to November 1497) saw Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza resume their unsuccessful siege of 1496, this time capturing the city after a siege that lasted for much of 1497.

1498

  The siege of Andijan (to February 1498) was the end result of a conspiracy in his original kingdom of Fergana that forced Babur to abandon Samarkand only 100 days after it fell into his hands after a siege that ended in November 1497.

1499

  The battle of Marghinan of 1499 was a minor conflict that helped to secure Babur's come-back after his disastrous occupation of Samarkand in 1497
    The Battle of the Ailaish River (1499) was a defeat suffered by Babur's supporters soon after he had regained control of his original kingdom of Fergana after a year spent in exile.
    The siege of Andijan of 1499 was an unsuccessful attack on Babur's recently regained capital made his chief rival Tambal in the aftermath of a revolt amongst Babur's Mongol mercenaries.
    The siege of Madu (1499) was a minor victory for Babur in the civil war that followed his return to power in Fergana in 1499.
    The battle of Khuban (1499) was Babur's first battle as a commander, and was a victory that should have helped secure his position as ruler of Fergana.
 

July

The Second Italian War or Italian War of Louis XII (1499-1503) began with the French conquest of Milan, which was followed by a joint Franco-Spanish campaign in Naples, and that ended with a war between the former allies that began the long period of Spanish rule in Naples.
 

25-29 August

The siege of Alessandria (25-29 August 1499) was the main military action during the French invasion of Milan in 1499, and the fall of the city helped force Ludovico Sforza to flee from Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).
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