This issue of Ancient Warfare magazine focuses on betrayal in the ancient world. The articles on the main there cover a wide time spread, from the Old Testament to the late Roman Republic. The nature of the betrayal varies - Memnon of Rhodes may have been fighting against his fellow Greeks, but he was serving an Empire with plenty of Greek subjects. In contrast the earlier Spartan king Demaratus deliberately entered the service of his city's enemies. Others are political rebels (Cataline and Achaeus), who opposed the existing rulers of their states, but without siding with foreign enemies. Most of the articles look at both what happened and attempt to work out the betrayer's motivation. In some cases there is no mystery here and the aim was simply to gain power, but other people, such as the Athenian leader Alcibiades, are rather more complex. Their careers help illustrate problems within their home states - Alcibiades was often the victim of the extremely volatile Athenian democracy, Demaratus of the dual Spartan monarchy.
Away from the main theme that are two articles, one looking at the reign of the Hittite Emperor Suppiluliuma and the second at the long running search for the location of the battle of Mons Graupius, a Roman victory somewhere in Scotland. Both are interesting articles, in particular the second, which looks at the limited ancient evidence, the archaeology, and the many false leads, typos and even deliberate forgeries that helped cloud the issue.
This is an interesting selection of articles that illustrate the tensions that could be found within ancient societies and the way in which some people reacted to them.
Betrayal in the ancient world: Historical introduction
How Cicero was heralded pater patriae: The Cataline Conspiracy
The man who would be king: David's insurgency against Saul
Brothers in betrayal? Jeremiah and Josephus
The disappointed defector: Demaratus
Lover of outrage and scandal: Alcibiades
Alexander the Great's most formidable opponent: Memnon of Rhodes
Rebellion in the Seleucid Empire: Antiochus and Achaeus
Great King and conqueror: Suppiluliuma I and his times
Search for a long battlefield: Where was the Battle of Mons Graupius?
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